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Energy and Environment Encyclopedias Articles

We at Enerdata are proud to share our partnership with two local publications based here in Grenoble, France, where we have our headquarters. The Encyclopedia of the Environment and the Encyclopedia of Energy both bring high-quality, scientific writing by academic experts to the public in multiple languages.

Through our partnership, Enerdata is sharing a selection of these articles here, which we think will be of use to our clients, partners, and readers.

Articles from both Encyclopedias on a variety of topics are available below in both English and French. More articles will be added regularly, so check back often!

Ecological Networks
Author(s)
Céline Clauzel

Ecological networks: how to reconcile biodiversity conservation and land-use planning?

In light of ecosystem degradation, the protection of biodiversity cannot only rely on creating protected natural areas. Recognising the mobility of species, the concept of "ecological networks" emerged to facilitate species migration between these areas. Despite the scientific and technical challenges they present, can ecological networks offer a solution to the declining biodiversity?
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Soil formation
Author(s)
Denis Baize

Soil formation in temperate climates

All the resources we consume, especially in the energy sector, come from the soils of our planet. These resources have been developed over an extensive period through various natural processes. What are these processes, and how did they contribute to the creation of fossil fuels, biomass, and other such materials?
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Environmental constraints and oxidative stress in plants
Author(s)
Pierre Dizengremel

Environmental constraints and oxidative stress in plants

Unlike animals, plants lack the ability to move and are thus especially vulnerable to external threats and environmental fluctuations. When confronted to abiotic stresses, i.e. induced by environmental factors (e.g., frost, high temperatures, drought), plants use defence mechanisms. What complex response systems have plants developed to survive these stresses?
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Plant resistance to Stress
Author(s)
Pierre Dizengremel

Plant resistance to stress: role of respiration

Like humans, plants breathe. During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) and release oxygen (O2). As they breathe, plants break down some of the compounds formed during photosynthesis and produce energy. With plants increasingly subject to water stress due to global warming, what happens in the event of severe stress? How do respiratory mechanisms enable the synthesis of defence compounds?
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Role des forets
Author(s)
Jean-Pierre WIGNERON

Role of forests in the planet's carbon balance

Trees capture CO2 through the process of photosynthesis. Therefore, forests are key carbon sinks, playing a crucial role in the macroscopic balance between CO2 release and capture within the biosphere. How can human activities and forest management optimise these carbon sinks, which will become increasingly valuable in the context of global warming and rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere?
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Our planete's Climate
Author(s)
Jean-Yves Caneill

Global governance of our planet’s climate

Although awareness of climate change and its impacts on life was already raised by the scientific community in the 19th century, it was not until the 1980s that global gatherings addressed the issue, such as the annual "Conferences Of the Parties (COPs)", launched in 1992. What do these COPs deal with? What were the different stages of these negotiations around climate issues and what were the outputs, COP after COP?
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Impacts Agriculture sur la biodiversité
Author(s)
Anne Teyssedre

Impacts of agriculture on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

Since the emergence of agriculture, an increasing number of innovations has enabled the augmentation of crop yields and the expansion of productivity boundaries of these systems. However, what is the current impact of intensive agriculture on soils and ecosystems? What lessons can we learn to preserve soil health and biodiversity while feeding the ever-expanding global population?
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The flight of birds
Author(s)
Jacques Blondel

The flight of birds

The dream of Icarus has haunted mankind for thousands of years. Birds have succeeded in mastering the air for 250 million years and have developed a multitude of techniques such as hovering or non-stop migrations over several thousand kilometres. The study of fossils of the ancestors of birds allows us to understand the anatomical and morphological evolution of birds that enabled them to conquer the sky.
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Besoins en eau des plantes
Author(s)
Bernard Itier

Plants water needs

As temperatures continue to rise and populations increase, conflicts over water usage are likely to intensify. However, water is an essential resource for plant growth. If this vital resource becomes scarce, how can humans guarantee the necessary plant production to feed themselves and to maintain ecosystems?
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Extinction of vertebrates impacts
Author(s)
Sébastien Albert

How vertebrate extinctions threaten tropical forests

We are currently experiencing a global collapse of vertebrate populations. This raises alarming concerns about the ecosystems’ resilience, particularly tropical forests. Volcanic islands in the Indian Ocean provide the perfect environment to study the consequences of these extinctions. How do vertebrate extinctions threaten forest dynamics?
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Fuel cells
Author(s)
Marian CHATENET

Fuel cells

Fuel cells enable the electricity conversion into hydrogen via chemical transformations. The hydrogen produced can be used in several end-uses in industry, transport or construction. Thus, this hydrogen contributes to the transition of these consuming sectors towards non-carbon energies. How does a fuel cell work?
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Biomass
Author(s)
Gilles DELAYGUE

Biomass, a massively available and major source of energy, an unsustainable use

Biomass has been used by humans for thousands of years for their vital needs, such as food, heat, shelter, and more. Despite its abundance on the planet, its sustainability is now being questioned, due to its limited regeneration rate in the demographic and economic growth context. How and at which rate is biomass produced, and how much of this stock is used by humans?
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